آشنایی با تاریخچه بستنی در ایران

در امپراتوری ایران، مردم افشره آب انگور را روی مقداری برف در کاسه‌ای می‌ریختند و آن را به عنوان دسر، مخصوصا هنگام گرمی هوا صرف می‌کرده‌اند.
برف یا از زیرزمین‌های سردی به نام یخچال، یا از برف باقیمانده روی کوه‌های اطراف پایتخت تابستانه، هگمتانه، برداشت می‌شده است.
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در ایران، بستنی ابتدا به صورت سنتی و دستی با عنوان “بستنی زعفرانی” تهیه می‌شد. این بستنی درون ظرفی (بشکه‌ای) دو جداره درست می‌شد؛ به این صورت که درون جدار داخلی شیر، خامه، شکر، ثعلب و زعفران، و در جدار بیرونی یخ و نمک ریخته می‌شد؛ سپس بشکه را مرتباً تکان می دادند تا بستنی تهیه شود.

اما امروزه این صنعت توسعه فراوان یافته و تقریباً در تمام شهرهای ایران به صورت صنعتی تهیه و مصرف می گردد.

تهیه بستنی در ایران متداول نبود و در قرن نوزدهم از اروپا به ایران انتقال یافت و متداول شد. در حقیقت از سفر سوم ناصرالدین شاه به اروپا، پلومبیر نام محلی ییلاقی در فرانسه است که بستنی خوشمزه‌ای در آنجا تهیه می‌شد و نام پلومبیر یعنی نوعی بستنی که با مخلفاتی همراه است از این شهر منشاء گرفته است.

در برخی منابع آمده است، در سال آخر سلطنت ناصرالدین شاه ساختن بستنی در ایران متداول شد و معروف‌ترین بستنی فروش بعدی تهران یعنی ممد ریش بستنی خامه‌دار مخصوصی تهیه می‌کرد که در تهران مردم استقبال زیادی از آن کردند.

این بستنی با ثعلب تهیه می‌شد. یخ و نمک را در بشکه ای ریخته داخل بشکه را شیر می ریختند و با وسایل مخصوص و تمهیدات زیاد و تکان دادن و چرخاندن ظرف از آن بستنی تهیه می کردند. بستنی فروشی های دوره گرد به زودی در تهران پیدا شدند که بستنی را در همان محفظه ها می گرداندند و با نان مخصوص عرضه می کردند.

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بستنی فروشی در دوره قاجار

میرزا رضا کرمانی قاتل ناصرالدین شاه در روز پنجشنبه ۱۱ اردیبهشت ۱۲۷۵/۱۶ ذی قعده ۱۳۱۳ ه.ق/ در تهران بود و از دکان ممد ریش بستنی خرید و خورد. روز بعد هنگام ظهر ناصرالدین شاه را داخل حرم مطهر حضرت عبدالعظیم(ع) ترور کرد.

می گویند مامورین نظمیه که سرگرم تحقیق و تفحص درباره ریشه های ترور بودند وقتی دانستند یک روز قبل میرزا رضا از ممد ریش بستنی خریده و خورده است به سراغ او رفتند و او را به نظمیه برده زیر اشکلک انداخته و شکنجه اش کردند و مرتبا می‌پرسیدند: در بستنی چه ریخته بودی که میرزا رضای شال فروش فقیر کرمانی را آن قدر جرات بخشیده بود که شاه مملکت را بکشد.

بستنی ممد ریش شهرت زیادی در تهران به دست آورد. بستنی فروشی او در جنوب شهر بود و در بهار و تابستان غلغله‌ای در دکان دو نبش او که سه نبش و چهارنبش هم شد بر پا می شد او تا حدود سال‌های ۱۳۳۵-۱۳۳۴ زنده بود. بستنی خامه‌ای پر از گلاب و خامه و هل و بسیار مایه‌دار و کش آمدنی، کاملا سفید مانند برف لای دو نان مخصوص معروف به حصیری که روزانه چند هزار دانه از آن به فروش می رفت.

سال‌ها بستنی به همان سادگی و رنگ شیری عرضه می‌شد تا اینکه در حدود سال ۱۳۲۹ بستنی ماشینی کالیفرنیا به بازار آمد و ذایقه ها بدان عادت کرد. بعدها بستنی زعفرانی زرد رنگ نیز شهرت یافت .

دیگر بستی فروش مشهوری که شهرتش حتی به شهرهایی مانند لوس آنجلس و پاریس هم رسیده است اکبر مشهدی یا مشدی است.

نام واقعی این شخص اکبر مشهدی ملایری بود. وی در ابتدا شکر و چای را شمال می‌برد و از آنجا هیزم به تهران می‌آورد. وی در ۲۰ سالگی با ممد ریش آشنا شد و از طریق آشنایان وی توانست به آشپزخانه دربار مظفرالدین شاه راه پیدا کند و تا آخر دوره قاجاریه در دربار بستنی سرو می‌کرد.

بعد از انقراض سلسله قاجاریه، رضا شاه تمامی پرسنل و خدمه دربار ازجمله اکبر مشهدی ملایری را از دربار اخراج کرد. اکبر مشهدی ملایری بعد از این واقعه با پولی که در مدت خدمت در دربار جمع کرده بود توانست مغازه بستنی فروشی خود را در درحوالی میدان راه آهن با نام بستنی فروشی اکبر مشدی افتتاح کند.

وی معتقد بود که بستنی های ایرانی باید کاملا با بستنی‌های خارجی فرق داشته باشد و ایرانی ها ترجیح می‌دهند تا در بستنی‌هایشان خامه، گلاب و زعفران بیشتر از نگهدارنده‌های دیگر باشد.

آن زمان هنوز یخچال ساخته نشده بود و وی مجبور بود برای تهیه یخ از یخچال‌های طبیعی راه‌های طولانی تا کوه‌های شمال شهر را طی کند. گاه تا عمق ۶۰ متری در دل یخچال‌های طبیعی پایین برود تا ذره ای یخ بدست بیاورد.

به زودی شهرت وی بقدری زیاد شد که رجال مملکتی و سفرای خارجی مقیم تهران نیز به مشتریان پرو پا قرص اکبر مشدی تبدیل شدند. نقل است که فخرالدوله مادر دکتر امینی (نخست وزیر وقت) از اکبر مشدی خواسته بود تا با هزینه وی به فرانسه سفر کند و برای مهمانان وی بستنی سرو کند.

اکبر مشدی در ۹۲ سالگی بر اثر عارضه کلیوی فوت کرد. خبر فوت وی حتی در روزنامه‌های عراق و پاکستان هم انعکاس یافته بود. یکی از دیپلمات‌های پاکستانی مقاله‌ای را برای بزرگداشت اکبر مشدی در روزنامه نوشت.

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